[Laboratory IX -- <EM>Ginkgo,</EM> <EM>Cordaites,</EM> and the Conifers]

Read More About It!

WWW info that is worth checking out:

Alvin, K.L. 1982. Cheirolepidiaceae: biology, structure, and paleoecology. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 37:71-99.

Andrews, H.N., Jr. and C.J. Felix. 1952. The gametophyte of Cardiocarpus spinatus Graham. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 39:127-135.

Arnold, C.A. 1967. The proper designation of the foliage and stems of the Cordaitales. Phytomorphology 17:346-350.

Basinger, J.F. 1981. The vegetative body of Metasequoia milleri from the Middle Eocene of southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 59:2379-2410.

Baxter, R.W. 1959. A new cordaitean stem with paired axillary branches. American Journal of Botany 46:163-169.

Beck, C.B. 1970. The appearance of gymnospermous structure. Biological Reviews 45:379-400.

Chamberlain, C.J. 1935. Gymnosperms. Structure and Evolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Clement-Westerhof, J. A. 1984. Aspects of Perminan paleobotany and palynology. 4. The conifer Ortiseia Florin from the Val Gardena Formation of the Dolomites and Vicentinian Alps (Italy) with special reference to a revised concept of the Walchiaceae (Goppert) Schimper. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 41: 51-166

Cohen, L. and T. Delevoryas. 1959. An occurrence of Cordaites in the Upper Pennsylvanian of Illinois. American Journal of Botany 46:545-549.

Cridland, A.A. 1962. The fungi in cordaitean rootlets. Mycologia 54:230-234.

Daghlian, C.P. and T.N. Taylor. 1979. A new structurally preserved Pennsylvanian cordaitean pollen organ. American Journal of Botany 66:290-300.

Delevoryas, T. 1953. A new male cordaitean fructification from the Kansas Carboniferous. American Journal of Botany 40: 144-150.

Doyle, J.A. and M.J. Donoghue. 1993. Phylogenies and angiosperm diversification. Paleobiology 19:141-167.

Florin, R. 1939. The morphology of the female fructifications in Cordaites and conifers of Palaeozoic age, Botaniska Notiser 36:547-565.

Florin, R. 1949. The morphology of Trichopitys heteromorpha Saporta, a seed-plant of Palaeozoic age, and the evolution of the female flowers in the Ginkgoinae. Acta Horti Bergiani 15:79-109.

Florin, R. 1950. Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian conifers. Botanical Review 16:258-282.

Florin, R. 1951. Evolution in Cordaites and conifers. Acta Horti Bergiani 15:285-388.

Florin, R. 1954. The female reproductive organs of conifers and taxads. Biological Reviews 29:367-389.

Foster, A.S. and E.M. Gifford, Jr. 1989. Comparative Morphology of Vascular Plants. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.

Gifford, E.M. and A.S. Foster. 1987. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants, Third Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Grove, G.G. and G.W. Rothwell. 1980. Mitrospermum vinculum sp. nov., a cardiocarpalean ovule from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Ohio. American Journal of Botany 67:1051-1058.

Harms, V.L. and G.A. Leisman. 1961. The anatomy and morphology of certain Cordaites leaves. Journal of Paleontology 35:1041-1064.

Harris, T.M. 1976. The Mesozoic gymnosperms. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 21:119-134.

Hart, J. 1987. A cladistic analysis of conifers: Preliminary results. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 68: 269-307.

Mapes, G. 1982. Morphology and anatomy of ovulate Lebachia cones. Botanical Society of America Miscellaneous Publications 162:61.

Meyen, S. 1981. Ginkgo: a living pteridosperm. IOP Newsletter 15:6-11.

Meyen, S. 1984. Basic features of gymnosperm systematics and phylogeny as evidenced by the fossil record. Botanical Review 50: 1-111.

Millay, M.A. and T.N. Taylor. 1974. Morphological studies of Paleozoic saccate pollen. Palaeontographica B 147:75-99.

Miller, C.N. Jr. 1976. Early evolution in the Pinaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 21:101-117.

Miller, C.N. Jr. 1977. Mesozoic conifers. Botanical Review 43:218-280.

Miller, C.N. Jr. 1982. Current status of Paleozoic and Mesozoic conifers. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 37:99-114.

Miller, C. N. Jr. 1988. The Origin of Modern Conifer Families. In: Beck, C. B., editor. Origin and Evolution of Gymnosperms. Columbia University Press, New York.

Namboodiri, K.K. and C.B. Beck. 1968. A comparative study of the primary vascular system of conifers. II. Stelar evolution in gymnosperms. American Journal of Botany 55:464-472.

Nixon, K.C., W.L. Crepet, D. Stevenson, and E,M. Friis. 1994. A reevaluation of seed plant phylogeny. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81:484-533.

Robison, C.R. and C.N. Miller, Jr. 1977. Anatomically preserved seed cones of the Pinaceae from the Early Cretaceous of Virginia. American Journal of Botany 64:770-779.

Rothwell, G.W. 1982a. Cordaianthus dequesnensis sp. nov., anatomically preserved ovulate cones from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Ohio. American Journal of Botany 69:239-247.

Rothwell, G.W. 1982b. New interpretations of the earliest conifers. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 37:7-28.

Rothwell, G.W. and J.F. Basinger. 1979. Metasequoia milleri n. sp., anatomically preserved pollen cones from the Middle Eocene (Allenby Formation) of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 75:958-970.

Rothwell, G.W. 1977. The primary vasculature of Cordaianthus concinnus. American Journal of Botany 64:1235-1241.

Scott, A. 1974. The earliest conifer. Nature 252:707-708.

Stockey, R.A. 1975. Seeds and embryos of Araucaria mirabilis. American Journal of Botany 62:856-868.

Stockey, R.A. 1977. Reproductive biology of the Cerro Cuadrado (Jurassic) fossil conifers: Pararaucaria patagonica. American Journal of Botany 64:733-744.

Stockey, R.A. 1982. The Araucariaceae: an evolutionary perspective. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 37:133-154.

Thomas, H.H. 1925. The Caytoniales, a new group of angiospermous plants from the Jurassic rocks of Yorkshire. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B213:299-363.

Tralau, H. 1968. Evolutionary trends in the genus Ginkgo. Lethaia 1:63-101.

Traverse, A. 1950. The primary vascular body of Mesoxylon thompsonii, a new American cordaitean. American Journal of Botany 37:318-325.

Underwood, J.C. and C.N. Miller, Jr. 1980. Pinus buchananii, a new species based on a petrified cone from the Oligocene of Washington. American Journal of Botany 67:1132-1135.

Wilde, M.H. 1944. A new interpretation of coniferous cones: 1. Podocarpaceae (Podocarpus). Annals of Botany 8:1-41.

[Previous Page] [Title Page]

[Previous Page] [Title Page]