[Laboratory VIII - Medullosans and Cycads]

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Some WWW info that is relevant to this lab:

Andrews, H.N. 1945. Contributions to our knowledge of American Carboniferous floras. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 32:323-360.

Basinger, J.F., G.W. Rothwell, and W.N. Stewart. 1974. Cauline vasculature and leaf trace production in Medullosan pteridosperms. American Journal of Botany 61:1002-1015.

Beck, C.B. 1970. The appearance of gymnospermous structure. Biological Reviews 45:379-400.

Chamberlain, C.J. 1919. The Living Cycads. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Chamberlain, C.J. 1935. Gymnosperms. Structure and Evolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Delevoryas, T. 1955. The Medullosae--structure and relationships. Palaentographica B 97:114-167.

Delevoryas, T. 1975. Mesozoic cycadophytes. In: K.S.W. Campbell (ed.) Gondwana Geology. Australian National Press, Canberra, Australia, pp. 173-191.

Delevoryas, T. and J. Morgan. 1954. A new pteridosperm from the Upper Pennsylvanian deposits of North America. Palaeontographica B 96:12-23.

Delevoryas, T. and R.C. Hope. 1971. A new Triassic cycad and its phyletic implications. Postilla 150:1-21.

Dennis, R.L. and D.A. Eggert. 1978. Parasporotheca, gen. nov., and its bearing on the interpretation of the morphology of permineralized Medullosan pollen organs. Botanical Gazette 139:117-139.

Doyle, J.A. and M.J. Donoghue. 1993. Phylogenies and angiosperm diversification. Paleobiology 19:141-167.

Dufek, D. and B.M. Stidd. 1981. The vascular system of Dolerotheca and its phylogenetic significance. American Journal of Botany 63:887-907.

Eggert, D.A. and G.W. Rothwell. 1979. Stewartiotheca gen. n. and the nature and origin of complex permineralized Medullosan pollen organs. American Journal of Botany 66:851-866.

Foster, A.S. and E.M. Gifford, Jr. 1989. Comparative Morphology of Vascular Plants. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.

Gastaldo, R.A. and L.C. Matten. 1978. Trigonocarpus leeanus, a new species from the Middle Pennsylvanian of southern Illinois. American Journal of Botany 65:882-890.

Harris, T.M. 1961. The fossil cycads. Palaeontology 4:313-323.

Harris, T.M. 1964. The Yorkshire Jurassic flora, volume II: Caytoniales, Cycadales, and Pteridosperms. British Museum of Natural History, London.

Harris, T.M. 1976. The Mesozoic gymnosperms. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 21:119-134.

Hoskins, J.H. and A.T. Cross. 1946. Studies in the Trigonocarpales. Part II. Taxonomic problems and a revision of the genus Pachytesta. American Midland Naturalist 36:331-361.

Jones, D.L. 1993. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

Mamay, S.H. 1976. Paleozoic origins of cycads. U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 934:1-48.

Mapes, G. and G. W. Rothwell. 1980. Quaestora amplecta gen. at. so. n., a structurally simple Medullosan stem from the Upper Mississippian of Arkansas. American Journal of Botany 67:636-647.

Mickle, J.E. and G.W. Rothwell. 1982. Permineralized Alethopteris from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Ohio and Illinois. Journal of Paleontology 56:392-402.

Millay, M.A. and D.A. Eggert and R.L. Dennis. 1978. Morphology and ultrastructure of four Pennsylvanian prepollen types. Micropaleontology 24:305-315.

Millay, M.A. and T.N. Taylor. 1979. Paleozoic seed fern pollen organs. Botanical Review 45:301-375.

Neely, F.E. 1951. Small petrified seeds from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois. Botanical Gazette 113:165-179.

Nixon, K.C., W.L. Crepet, D. Stevenson, and E,M. Friis. 1994. A reevaluation of seed plant phylogeny. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81:484-533.

Phillips, T.L. and H.N. Andrews. 1963. An occurrence of the Medullosan seed-fern Sutcliffia in the American Carboniferous. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 50:29-51.

Ramanujam, C.G.K., G.W. Rothwell and W.N. Stewart. 1974. Probable attachment of the Dolerotheca campanulum of a Myeloxylon -- Alethopteris type frond. American Journal of Botany 61:1057-1066.

Rothwell, G.W. 1972a. Evidence of pollen tubes in Paleozoic pteridosperms. Science 175:772-774.

Rothwell, G.W. 1976. Primary vasculature and gymnosperm systematics. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 22:193-206.

Schabilion, J.T. and N.C. Brotzman. 1979. A tetrahedral megaspore arrangement in a seed fern ovule of Pennsylvanian age. American Journal of Botany 66:744-745.

Schopf, J.M. 1949. Pteridosperm male fructifications: American species of Dolerotheca, with notes regarding certain allied forms. Report of Investigations 142. State Geological Survey of Illinois, Urbana.

Stewart, W.N. 1951. Medullosa pandurata, sp. nov. from the McLeansboro Group of Illinois. American Journal of Botany 41:500-508.

Stewart, W.N. and T. Delevoryas. 1952. Bases for determining relationships among the Medullosaceae. American Journal of Botany. 39:505-516.

Stewart, W.N. and T. Delevoryas. 1956. The Medullosan pteridosperms. Botanical Review 22:45-80.

Stidd, B.M. 1978. An anatomically preserved Potoniea with in situ spores from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois. American Journal of Botany 65:677-683.

Stidd, B.M. 1981. The current status of Medullosan seed ferns. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 32:63-101.

Stidd, B.M., G.A. Leisman and T.L. Phillips. 1977. Sullitheca dactylifera gen. et sp. n.: a new Medullosan pollen organ and its evolutionary significance. American Journal of Botany 64:994-1002.

Stidd, B.M., L.L. Oestry and T.L. Phillips. 1975. On the frond of Sutcliffia insignis var. tuberculata. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 20:55-66.

Taylor, T.N. and D.A. Eggert. 1969. On the structure and relationships of a new Pennsylvanian species of the seed Pachytesta. Palaeontology 12:382-387.

Taylor, T.N. and M.A. Millay. 1981b. Additional information on the pollen organ Halletheca (Medullosales). American Journal of Botany 68:1403-1407.

Worsdell, W.C. 1906. The structure and origin of the Cycadaceae. Annals of Botany 20:129-155.

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