Earth and Space Science
Structure of the Earth System

National Standards State Standards SFUSD Standards
D1a* The solid earth is layered with a lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core. 6.1b. the solid Earth is layered with cold, brittle lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core. NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
D1b* Lithospheric plates on the scales of continents and oceans constantly move at rates of centimeters per year in response to movements in the mantle. Major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from these plate motions. 6.1. Plate tectonics explains important features of the Earth's surface and major geologic events.

6.1a. the fit of the continents, location of earthquakes, volcanoes, and midocean ridges, and the distribution of fossils, rock types, and ancient climatic zones provide evidence for plate tectonics.

6.1c. lithospheric plates that are the size of continents and oceans move at rates of centimeters per year in response to movements in the mantle.

6.1d. earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults, and volcanoes/fissures are locations where magma reaches the surface.

6.1e. major geologic events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building result from plate motions.

Content Standard 17 (partial): Students understand how the process of plate tectonics changes the surface of the earth and how exposed surfaces are altered by weathering.
D1c* Land forms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces. Constructive forces include crustal deformation, volcanic eruption, and deposition of sediment, while destructive forces include weathering and erosion. 6.2. Topography is reshaped by weathering of rock and soil and by the transportation and deposition of sediment. Content Standard 17 (partial): Students understand how the process of plate tectonics changes the surface of the earth and how exposed surfaces are altered by weathering.
D1d* Some changes in the solid earth can be described as the "rock cycle." Old rocks at the earth's surface weather, forming sediments that are buried, then compacted, heated, and often recrystallized into new rock. Eventually, those new rocks may be brought to the surface by the forces that drive plate motions, and the rock cycle continues. 7.4c. the rock cycle includes the formation of new sediment and rocks. Rocks are often found in layers with the oldest generally on the bottom. NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
D1e* Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. Soils are often found in layers, with each having a different chemical composition and texture. NOT PRESENT IN CA STATE STANDARDS NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
D1f* Water, which covers the majority of the earth's surface, circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere in what is known as the "water cycle." Water evaporates from the earth's surface, rises and cools as it moves to higher elevations, condenses as rain or snow, and falls to the surface where it collects in lakes, oceans, soil, and in rocks underground. 5.3. Water on Earth moves between the oceans and land through the processes of evaporation and condensation.

5.3a. most of the Earth's water is present as salt water in the oceans, which cover most of the Earth's surface.

5.3b. when liquid water evaporates, it turns into water vapor in the air and can reappear as a liquid when cooled, or as a solid if cooled below the freezing point of water.

5.3c. water moves in the air from one place to another in the form of clouds or fog, which are tiny droplets of water or ice, and falls to the Earth as rain, hail, sleet, or snow.

Content Standard 20 (partial): Students understand that water from the ocean cycles in and out of the atmosphere, playing an important role in determining weather and climate patterns, how movements within the ocean affect the global ecosystems, and how different forms of life are supported by different oceanic niches.
D1g* Water is a solvent. As it passes through the water cycle it dissolves minerals and gases and carries them to the oceans. NOT PRESENT IN CA STATE STANDARDS NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
D1h* The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor. The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations. NOT PRESENT IN CA STATE STANDARDS NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
D1i* Clouds, formed by the condensation of water vapor, affect weather and climate. NOT PRESENT IN CA STATE STANDARDS NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
D1j* Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. Oceans have a major effect on climate, because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat. 5.4. Energy from the sun heats the Earth unevenly, causing air movements resulting in changing weather patterns. (partial)

5.4a. uneven heating of the Earth causes air movements (convection currents).

5.4b. the influence of the ocean on weather, and the role of the water cycle in weather.

5.4c. causes and effects of different types of severe weather.

5.4d. how to use weather maps and weather forecasts to predict local weather, and that prediction depends on many changing variables.

6.4e. differences in pressure, heat, air movement, and humidity result in changes of weather.

Content Standard 19: Students understand that solar energy is unevenly received on earth, how ocean and air currents are influenced by differential heating, affecting global weather patterns and climates.
D1k* Living organisms have played many roles in the earth system, including affecting the composition of the atmosphere, producing some types of rocks, and contributing to the weathering of rocks. NOT PRESENT IN CA STATE STANDARDS NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
NOT PRESENT IN NATIONAL STANDARDS 5.3d. the amount of fresh water, located in rivers, lakes, underground sources, and glaciers, is limited, and its availability can be extended through recycling and decreased use. 5.3e. the origin of water used by their local communities. 5.4e. the Earth's atmosphere exerts a pressure that decreases with distance above the Earth's surface, and is the same in all directions. 6.1f. how to explain major features of California geology in terms of plate tectonics (including mountains, faults, volcanoes). 6.1g. how to determine the epicenter of an earthquake and that the effects of an earthquake vary with its size, distance from the epicenter, local geology, and the type of construction involved. 6.2a. water running downhill is the dominant process in shaping the landscape, including Californiašs landscape. 6.2b. rivers and streams are dynamic systems that erode and transport sediment, change course, and flood their banks in natural and recurring patterns. 6.2c. beaches are dynamic systems in which sand is supplied by rivers and moved along the coast by wave NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
NOT PRESENT IN NATIONAL STANDARDS NOT PRESENT IN CA STATE STANDARDS Content Standard 20 (only partially covered, see National Standard D1f above): Students understand that water from the ocean cycles in and out of the atmosphere, playing an important role in determining weather and climate patterns, how movements within the ocean affect the global ecosystems, and how different forms of life are supported by different oceanic niches.

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9/30/99