Life Science
Structure and Function in Living Systems

National Standards State Standards SFUSD Standards
C1a* Living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. Important levels of organization for structure and function include cells, organs, tissues, organ systems, whole organisms, and ecosystems. 5.2a. many multicellular organisms have specialized structures to support the transport of materials.

7.5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function.

7.5a. plants and animals have levels of organization for structure and function, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism.

Content Standard 11 (partial): Students understand that living things in similar environments have structures which function to make survival in their environment possible.
C1b* All organisms are composed of cells--the fundamental unit of life. Most organisms are single cells; other organisms, including humans, are multicellular. 7.1a. cells function similarly in all living organisms.

7.1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible only through a microscope.

Content Standard 10 (partial): Students understand that living things are made of structural and functional units called cells. Every cell is able to conduct necessary life processes, including the processing of food, growth, and cell reproduction. In multicellular organisms, cells become specialized to function within tissues providing specific functions for an organism.
C1c* Cells carry on the many functions needed to sustain life. They grow and divide, thereby producing more cells. This requires that they take in nutrients, which they use to provide energy for the work that cells do and to make the materials that a cell or an organism needs. 5.2f. plants use carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy from sunlight to build molecules of sugar and release oxygen.

5.2g. plant and animal cells break down sugar to obtain energy, forming carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (respiration).

Content Standard 10 (partial): Students understand that living things are made of structural and functional units called cells. Every cell is able to conduct necessary life processes, including the processing of food, growth, and cell reproduction. In multicellular organisms, cells become specialized to function within tissues providing specific functions for an organism.

Content Standard 16 (partial): Students understand that food provides fuel and building materials for all organisms. Plants make their own food by using energy directly from the sun, while animals ingest other organisms to obtain energy.

C1d* Specialized cells perform specialized functions in multicellular organisms. Groups of specialized cells cooperate to form a tissue, such as a muscle. Different tissues are in turn grouped together to form larger functional units, called organs. Each type of cell, tissue, and organ has a distinct structure and set of functions that serve the organism as a whole. 5.2. Plants and animals have structures for respiration, digestion, waste disposal, and transport of materials.

7.1f. as multicellular organisms develop, their cells differentiate.

7.5b. organ systems function because of the contributions of individual organs, tissues, and cells. The failure of any part can affect the entire system.

Content Standard 10 (partial): Students understand that living things are made of structural and functional units called cells. Every cell is able to conduct necessary life processes, including the processing of food, growth, and cell reproduction. In multicellular organisms, cells become specialized to function within tissues providing specific functions for an organism.
C1e* The human organism has systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, control, and coordination, and for protection from disease. These systems interact with one another. 5.2a. many multicellular organisms have specialized structures to support the transport of materials.

5.2b. how blood circulates through the heart chambers, lungs, and body, and how carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) are exchanged in the lungs and tissues.

5.2c. the sequential steps of digestion, and the roles of teeth and mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and colon in the function of the digestive system.

5.2d. the role of the kidney in removing cellular wastes from blood and converting them into urine, which is stored in the bladder.

7.5c. how bones and muscles work together to provide a structural framework for movement.

7.6h. how to compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with structures used in machines and simple devices (hinge, ball-and-socket, and sliding joints).

7.6i. how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application of this principle applies to the musculoskeletal system.

7.6j. contractions of the heart generate blood pressure, and heart valves prevent backflow of blood in the circulatory system.

NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
C1f* Disease is a breakdown in structures or functions of an organism. Some diseases are the result of intrinsic failures of the system. Others are the result of damage by infection by other organisms. NOT PRESENT IN CA STATE STANDARDS NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS
NOT PRESENT IN NATIONAL STANDARDS 5.2e. how sugar, water, and minerals are transported in a vascular plant.

7.1b. the characteristics that distinguish plant cells from animal cells, including chloroplasts and cell walls.

7.1c. the nucleus is the repository for genetic information in plant and animal cells.

7.1d. mitochondria liberate energy for the work that cells do, and chloroplasts capture sunlight energy for photosynthesis.

7.1e. cells divide to increase their numbers through a process of mitosis, which results in two daughter cells with identical sets of chromosomes.

7.5g. how to relate the structures of the eye and ear to their functions.

7.6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

NOT PRESENT IN SFUSD STANDARDS

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9/30/99