Caltrans Glossary
shallow shear failure
"Shallow shear failures result from overstressing of the ground … and may be enhanced by the potential for discontinuity and gravity-controlled failure modes. Shallow shear failure is manifested by moderate inward movement of the tunnel perimeter, including invert heave, and possibly by movement of rock into the tunnel opening along discontinuities."

Definition from the "Caldecott Improvement Project: Geotechnical Baseline Report," prepared by Jacobs Associates, June 2009. 100 pp.

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