1) Baily, J.H. 1898. Lessons with Plants. Macmillan and CO., Ltd., London.
2) Barns, C.R. 1900. Outlines of Plant Life. Henry Holt and Company, New York. pp 115-218.
3) Bold, Harold C. 1987. Morphology of Plants and Fungi. 5th ed. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers.
4) Cutter, Elizabeth G. 1996. Trends in Plant Morphogenesis. Spottiswoode, Ballantyne and Co. Ltd. Great Britain.
5) Dittmer, Howard J. 1964. Phylogeny and Form in the Plant Kingdom. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. Princeton, New Jersey.
6) Glimm-Lacy, J., and Kaufman, Peter B. 1984 Botnay Illustrated. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.
7) Leopold, A. Carl. 1975. Plant Growth and Development, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
8) McNab, W.R. 1881. Botany. Henry Holt and Company, New York. pp. 94-173.
9) Niklas, Karl J. 1994. Plant Allometry. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
10) Schmid, Rudolf. 1992. Diversity of Plants and Fungi. Burgess International Groups, Inc., Bellwether Press Division, Minnesota.
11) Torrey, John G. 1975. Development in Flowering Plants. New York: The Macmillan Company.
12) All pictures are from the "Virtual Foliage" Page at the University of Wisconsin. It is located at :


Meiosis and Syngamy | Gametes | Evolution of Life Cycles |
| Haploid Life Cycle | Diploid Life Cycle | Haploid-Diploid Life Cycle |
| Ecology of Reproduction | Asexual Reproduction | Summary |
| Sources | G lossary |