Biology 1A Sept 17, 1998
Lecture 6 - Genetics
Page Contents :
Overview of Lecture:
Genetics is the study of genes.
Gregor Mendel first studied genetics as a science.
Introduction to problems of inheritance.
Later research revealed the mechanism behind inheritance.
Overview of Lab:
(A bullet indicates a handout.)
- Mendelian Genetics Problems.
I. Genetics is the study of genes.
A. Reprise of DNA function & protein synthesis.
II. Gregor Mendel first studied genetics as a science.
B. Transcription & Translation.
C. "One gene, one protein" concept.
D. Genetics includes inheritance, population genetics, gene function & control.
E. Why is genetics important?
1. Genetically engineered bacteria produce human insulin.
2. Selective breeding can improve crops for freshness or disease resistance.
3. Can provide understanding of genetic-related disease (hemophilia, sickle-cell anemia, diabetes) - fetal detection
A. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
III. Introduction to problems of inheritance.
1. Augustinian priest in Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)
B. Mendel was the first to bring an experimental and quantitative approach to genetics.
2. 1856 began garden pea experiments
3. published in 1865, but no one noticed until 35 years later
4. considered "Father of Genetics"
1. Prior to Mendel, selective breeding used to improve plants or animals (an art, not a science)
C. Mendelian Genetics - Laws of Inheritance
2. Mendel quantified data for first time
a. Made measurements
3. Mendel tried an experimental approach - Scientific Method
b. Counted offspring of each type, calculated ratios
c. Contrast with qualitative data
a. Manipulated his pea plants, made hybrids
b. Observed results
c. Formulated a model to explain the results
d. Made predictions based on his model
e. Tested those predictions
1. Inheritance - passing on to the next generation. Blending or discrete?
2. Law of Segregation : the two alleles for a character are packaged separately
3. Law of Independent Assortment : for each gene (pair of alleles), segregation into gametes is independent
A. Some terminology
IV. Later research revealed the mechanism behind inheritance.
B. Introduction to blood groups
C. Punnett Squares
A. Identification of DNA and RNA
B. Thomas Hunt Morgan - work with Drosophila
C. Herman J. Muller - causes of mutation
D. Griffith - bacterial transformation
E. Barbara McClintock - genes are on the chromosomes
F. Watson and Crick - structure and replication of DNA
G. Gene sequencing
|allele|| || ||
||genetics|| || ||
|carrier|| || ||
||genotype|| || ||
|codominance|| || ||
||haploid|| || ||
|cross|| || ||
||heterozygous|| || ||
|dihybrid cross|| || ||
||homozygous|| || ||
|diploid|| || ||
||hybrid|| || ||
|dominant|| || ||
||inheritance|| || ||
|Drosophila|| || ||
||mutagen|| || ||
|filial generation|| || ||
||mutant|| || ||
|gamete|| || ||
||mutation|| || ||
|gene|| || ||
||parental generation|| || ||
|gene linkage|| || ||
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© 1998 Brian R. Speer. These pages for the personal use of students and teachers; any commercial use or publication is strictly prohibited.